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How Are Canadian Patients Using Medical Cannabis?

Tilray logo Presented By Tilray September 7, 2017
Tilray cannabis oil capsules. (Courtesy of Tilray)
This article is sponsored by Tilray, one of the largest and most sophisticated producers of medical cannabis in the world. Tilray is dedicated to providing safe, consistent, and reliable products to patients and furthering clinical and observational research examining the therapeutic potential of cannabis.

It seems like every day brings a new study about the ways medical cannabis can be used in healthcare. But how are patients already accessing medical cannabis, and in what form? And more importantly, how is it impacting their quality of life? A new study led by Philippe Lucas, Vice-President of Patient Research & Access for Tilray, and Leafly’s own Nick Jikomes, PhD, provides some of the first answers to these questions.

Tilray’s Philippe Lucas presents data from the company’s latest patient research. (Courtesy of Tilray)

The Tilray Patient Survey 2017 saw the company partner with academics and researchers from the Cleveland Clinic, McMaster University, the University of British Columbia, and the University of Victoria on the largest survey of Canadian medical cannabis patients ever conducted, tracking the responses of 2,032 patients across Canada.

Patient Preferences

Medical marijuana patients who responded to the survey were a median of 40 years old, and men outnumbered women almost two to one. About one in five respondents (22%) had private insurance, but just 3% got financial assistance to help defray the cost of their medical cannabis prescription.


How Canadian Licensed Producers Are Driving Medical Marijuana Research

Respondents were more or less evenly split between their preferences for indica (25%), sativa (22%), and hybrid strains (21%)—just ahead of users who had no preference at 17.5%. High-CBD strains were favored by just 14.5% of respondents, but CBD-heavy varieties made a strong showing among respondents who used extracts and concentrates—50% looked for a high-CBD strain in those products.

Medical Cannabis Instead Of…

Nearly 70% of users reported that they substituted medical cannabis for a previously prescribed medication. The leading substance that medical cannabis replaced? Opioids (36%), with antidepressants (21%) and other pain medications following close behind.

“In 610 mentions of opioid medication, 59% of patients stopped using these painkillers completely, and another 18% cut their consumption to a quarter or less,” said Lucas, the lead author on the study. “This suggests that cannabis may already be playing a harm-reduction role in the current opioid crisis.”

Tilray cannabis oil capsules. (Courtesy of Tilray)

These findings are consistent with US-based research by Bachhuber et al. (2014) showing a nearly 25% reduction in opioid overdose deaths in medical cannabis states compared to neighboring states that did not allow the medical use of cannabis.

It wasn’t just prescription drugs that cannabis helped patients phase out, though. Nearly a third of participants (31%) reported that using medical cannabis had helped them cut their tobacco use, and half of those respondents had quit using tobacco altogether. In addition, 44% of those surveyed reported that medical cannabis helped them consume less alcohol, and 26% said that cannabis products served as a substitute for illicit drugs.

The study also found that the two main conditions that drive patients to seek medical cannabis were chronic pain (38%) and mental health issues (40%), including anxiety and insomnia.


It’s Time to Treat Medical Cannabis Like Medicine

Although cannabis use for medical purposes is gaining acceptance as patients choose it for a variety of health challenges, it doesn’t fit the traditional “take two and call me in the morning” format of other prescriptions. With so many ways to work medical cannabis into a healthcare plan, researchers asked participants how they prefer to get their daily dose.

Flower Power

Despite the variety of delivery methods now available for medical cannabis, respondents tended to stick with a classic: flower was far and away the most popular choice for patients. Most patients (74%) used cannabis on a daily basis, and average consumption was about a gram and a half every day, translating to just over 19 ounces a year. A lot of that was consumed as joints, the most popular method of smoking medical cannabis. 

A package of medicinal flower. (Courtesy of Tilray)

But while traditional flower was the most popular form of cannabis among Canadian patients, new ways of ingesting it are growing in popularity. Almost half (47%) of participants reported that their main cannabis delivery method was non-smoking. Vaporizers, including gear like e-nails and vape pens, were the favored method for 31% of respondents.


The different ways to smoke and consume cannabis

Bringing up the rear, juicing was the least popular method of consuming cannabis, with just 0.2% of survey takers calling it their primary method of use. Topicals like oils and salves just edged it out as the most popular forms of cannabis consumption among 0.3% of patients.

Cannabis may already be playing a harm-reduction role in the current opioid crisis.
Philippe Lucas, Vice-President of Patient Research & Access, Tilray


The data patients shared with researchers demonstrates that the long-held promise medical cannabis holds for treating a broad array of conditions is starting to be realized. In particular, the initial findings of this study highlight the potential of medical cannabis to help address North America’s opioid crisis by providing a safer substitute in the treatment of chronic pain. Now, authors of the study are drafting the data into a number of academic publications that will help to better understand and contextualize the results.


How to Choose a Licensed Producer of Medical Cannabis in Canada

“I’ve had the privilege of working with medical cannabis patients for over 20 years, and it’s an honor to be able to share their experiences through studies like the Tilray Patient Survey 2017,” Lucas said.

Disclaimer: Tilray and Leafly are both subsidiaries of Privateer Holdings, Inc.

  • Cowtown

    Great article – I live and Canada and it was very insightful!

  • Turner Kayston

    Personally, I prefer to avoid all the mass produced, inferior, (big corporation), machine trimmed, irradiated, chemically fertilized, pesticide infused & marinated Cannabis – we already have big tobacco for those harms.

    “Just say no”, to all the untested (when heated / inhaled), myopic Health Canada approved sprays and chemicals with all the dangerous recalls happening as of late.

    Be sure to read the public, open letter about this issue too!

    • Ben Tover

      Medical Marijuana should only be produced organically. Putting chemicals of dubious concoctions into an already health compromised person doesn’t make any sense at all.

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    Variety of top quality medical marijuana Hash, Wax & cannabis Oil, Indica & Sativa.. lets kick out pain,cancer, depression ,brain tumor,insomnia and lastly pills…(928) 432-3067 💯🍀Hmu!!!

  • Destani

    I will not purchase from government sanctioned and distorted sources. I have been down that road, and I will not purchase anything over the internet, (which is a barrier to access my medicine in addition to a complicated and extremely costly, uncompassionate system for obtaining a “prescription” which most doctors will not go out of their way to promote as most doctors are there to make money), nor should I be forced to. I do not attend liquor stores except on unusual occasions and view my consumption as medicine and attend dispensaries that sell those products (not smoking or vaping) that they are quite proficient at getting and/or producing. I do not buy things without serious consideration that includes hands on viewing and readily available information. When I need my medicine, I need it in that moment, not 3 months down the line when I have jumped through enough hoops. That is beyond ridiculous.

    Tilray is way too expensive for the product quality you get. Good on them to use this venue to further their claim to legitimacy, but I am not fooled.

    The only way to make this fair is to legalize this product completely (with laws or rules of purchase and consumption that are fair, or there will exist a multilevel access for the rich and not so rich, much like our current medical system). The government is saying that these efforts and sanctions they put in are for the protection of the people, youth and to stop organized crime. They are making the dispensaries (and mom and pop and consumers) all part of the label of “organised crime”, instead of giving us proper guide lines for conducting business and personal lives.

    Stop making me (and where I already obtain safe medicines) the criminals. Stop playing “big brother” and forcing wrongful legislation down our throats. Encourage exchange of information and proper consumption. Give us the tools we need to be healthy, because the big pharma way doesn’t work.

    • Ro Wal

      So where are you getting your medicine from I’m curious I have soccer doses and it similar to lupus very similar and I’m going to try this as the last resort because I refuse to take any more medication thank you for your reply

      • Destani

        At the moment I frequent compassion clubs of sorts, but being where I am located in Victoria BC, there are many outlets. The outlet I go to for quality product is Trees Dispensary. Check them out on line. Always superior products, rarely out of 3 years of attending have I had any issues, and the one that comes to mind was simply and efficiently taken care of within their guidelines.

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    Am so impressed on Dr Mc Donald i just got some medical marijuana/ CBD Cannabis Oil and medical card comes in today go for him my anxiety and pains are relieved. Phone # (313) 923-7690 .